Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60 Page 61 Page 62 Page 63 Page 64 Page 65 Page 66 Page 67 Page 68 Page 69 Page 70 Page 71 Page 72 Page 73 Page 74 Page 75 Page 76 Page 77 Page 78 Page 79 Page 80 Page 81 Page 82 Page 83 Page 84 Page 85 Page 86 Page 87 Page 88 Page 89 Page 90 Page 91 Page 92 Page 93 Page 94 Page 95 Page 96 Page 97 Page 98 Page 99 Page 100 Page 101 Page 102 Page 103 Page 104 Page 105 Page 106 Page 107 Page 108 Page 109 Page 110 Page 111 Page 112 Page 113 Page 114 Page 115 Page 116 Page 117 Page 118 Page 119 Page 120 Page 121 Page 122 Page 123 Page 124 Page 125 Page 126 Page 127 Page 128 Page 129 Page 130 Page 131 Page 132Redwood (Pinus sylvestris) Whitewood (Picea abies) Origin Scandinavia Scandinavia Colour Sapwood: creamy white to yellow Heartwood: pale reddish-brown Sapwood and Heartwood: white to pale yellowish-brown Durability Non-durable Non-durable Characteristics Grain: typically straight Texture: medium Grain: typically straight Texture: medium Uses Internal joinery, furniture, construction and structural use Internal joinery, flooring, staircases and structural use Working properties Good working properties for hand & machine tools; ease of working is dependant on the size & number of knots present. Good finishing properties Good working and finishing properties. Takes stain, paint, polish & varnish well Clear distinction between heartwood and sapwood No distinction between sapwood/heartwood colour. Knots are round and of similar colour to the surrounding wood, sometimes dull/greyish brown. Live knots are reddish, Dead knots are black Every live knot will contain shake. The colour darkens with age, giving yellow/red impression Is lighter in colour than Redwood and stays lighter when exposed to sunlight. Is easier to machine than whitewood More difficult to obtain a high quality machined finish. The grain has a tendancy to ‘fluff up’ around knots, and brittle knots can shatter during machining. Will take treatment more readily then whitewood More difficult to treat with preservatives. Tends to contain resin Has resin pockets. Knotty impression (pin knots) Quality Grading These range from 1 to 6 for Scandinavian and 1to 5 for Russian, where I is the highest grade. They are normally written in Roman numerals. The timber is visually graded, taking into account the frequency and position of the factors or defects mentioned above. Of the Scandinavian grades (I to VI) the first 4 are grouped together and called Unsorted. This then provides three commercial grades; Unsorted (grades I-V), V and VI. Russian softwood also has the 3 commercial grades, Unsorted (this time only containing grades I-III), IV and V. Although it would appear that the Russians have the higher quality grading, this is not the case. The unsorted from both are comparable. Scandinavian Russian I UNSORTED I UNSORTED II UNSORTED II UNSORTED III UNSORTED III UNSORTED IV UNSORTED IV V V VI Whitewood Typically sold as I to V - Sawfalling excl. sixths VI - Sixths Whitewood can be sorted into U/S, V and VIs, but quite often it is sold simply by removing the sixth grade , and the remaining grades (I to V) are sold as ‘sawfalling excluding sixths’. Strength Grading Timber that has been strength graded should have a special stamp - or grade mark - stamped on it at least once, on its face. Parts of a building (e.g. floor joist, ceiling joist) may be specified as needing to be strength graded. Only timber that has been strength graded and stamped to that specified grade or better should be used. This is what a typical grade mark look like: 1 - Certification body logo or mark 2 - Grader and/or company ref. 3 - Species or species group 4 - Standard ref. (visual grading) 5 - Timber condition alternatives KD or WET 6 - Grade and/or strength class TRADA 0000 EW/ER BS 4978 DRY GS 16 4 3 1 5 6 2 GREEN Permawood is a waterborne preservative for application to timber by pressure impregnation giving timber an attractive green colour. ■ ■ Plant dimensions: 10m L x 1.6m dia PERMAWOOD BENEFITS: ■ ■  Maintenance free: No maintenance costs. Once only preservative treatment. ■ ■  Safe: When dry, non hazardous to people, animals and plants. ■ ■  Weatherproof: Preservatives will not leach out in either fresh or salt water. ■ ■  Clean: When dry will not soil hands or clothes. ■ ■  Odourless: No unpleasant smell. HOW TO ENSURE EFFECTIVE USE: ACQ Permawood must be used in the same size and shape as it was when treated. If ACQ Permawood is rip-sawn, thicknessed, planed or reshaped in any way after treatment the timber must be re-treated. Cut ends must never be placed in ground contact. THE TURN AROUND TIME IS ABOUT SEVEN DAYS WHICH ALLOWS THE CHEMICALS TO FIX IN THE TIMBER BEFORE TRANSPORTATION. Helpful Timber Information TIMBER TREATMENT ACQ 32